All scientific work of an experimental or exploratory nature starts with some expectation about the outcome. These have been, quite properly, organised into a more serial, logical order so that the worth of the output may be evaluated independently of the behavioural processes by which it was obtained. Choose the most suitable headings for paragraphs C-G from the list of headings below. He was arguing in favour of the position taken by Karl Popper in The Logic of Scientific Discovery 1972, 3rd edition that the nature of scientific method is hypothetico-deductive and not, as is generally believed, inductive. If the predictions you make as a result of deducing certain consequences from your hypothesis are not shown to be correct then you discard or modify your hypothesis. Hypotheses provide the initiative and incentive for the inquiry and influence the method.
Where is, your naive, pure and objective researcher now? The hypothetico-deductive method describes the logical approach to much research work, but it does not describe the psychological behaviour that brings it about. D students not to cheat while carrying out research. D students to work by guesswork and inspiration. C The myth of scientific method is that it is inductive: that the formulation of scientific theory starts with the basic, raw evidence of the senses - simple, unbiased, unprejudiced observation. However, the starting point of induction is an impossible one.
Every act of observation we make is a function of what we have seen or otherwise experienced in the past. Learn vocabulary and language with the world's best gifs. D students by explaining different conceptions of the research process. You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 29-40 which are based on the Reading Passage below. The myth is that from a disorderly array of factual information an orderly, relevant theory will somehow emerge.
. It is in the light of an expectation that some observations are held to be relevant and some irrelevant, that one methodology is chosen and others discarded, that some experiments are conducted and others are not. G The myth of scientific method is not only that it is inductive which we have seen is incorrect but also that the hypothetico-deductive method proceeds in a step-by-step, inevitable fashion. This expectation is a hypothesis. D There is no such thing as an unbiased observation. Question 40 Choose the appropriate letter A-D and write it in box 40 on your answer sheet. Questions 36-39 Do the following statements reflect the opinions of the writer in Reading Passage 12? E Hypotheses arise by guesswork, or by inspiration, but having been formulated they can and must be tested rigorously, using the appropriate methodology.
Questions 29-30 Reading Passage 12 has seven paragraphs A-G. This is much more holistic — involving guesses, reworkings, corrections, blind alleys and above all inspiration, in the deductive as well as the hypothetic component -than is immediately apparent from reading the final thesis or published papers. D students the logic which the scientific research paper follows. If the predictions turn out to be correct then your hypothesis has been supported and may be retained until such time as some further test shows it not to be correct. Write the appropriate numbers i-x in boxes 29-33 on your answer sheet.
The closest we ever get to this situation is when something happens by accident; but even then the researcher has to formulate a hypothesis to be tested before being sure that, for example, a mould might prove to be a successful antidote to bacterial infection. It was developed by Averil Coxhead at the School of Linguistics, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand. . . . . .
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